The Political spectrum is a way of classifying different political positions on a sets of axes – usually seen on one x-axis going from left (liberal) to right (conservative).
Here’s a simple one-axis graphic explaining the spectrum from communism to fascism:
Additionally, there is a political compass test you can take to see where on their two axes you fall ideologically. The x-axis looks at economic ideology, while the y-axis is social ideology.
Here’s another version showing the different ideologies within the above graph: